Part 1


Place: Miwon Kwon - One Place After Another

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Place: Jacquy Pfeiffer, Sugar Sculptures

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Through research surrounding sugar casting I found this video which helped me confirm that sugar was the best way forward for this project. To me, it illustrated that it is possible to create large lumps of sugar in solid form and the ability to shape and mould this material. 


Place: Bendetta Mori Ubaldini, Chicken Wire Sculptures


"Benedetta works in many materials but is best known for her innovative and extraordinarily beautiful wire work. Each piece starts life as industrially produced, rolled “chicken” wire which is gradually shaped by hand, twisting and joining the pieces together to give a seamless appearance.

“What I love is to fill large spaces with narratives, creating three dimensional pictures and I like them to be evocative, symbolic and poetic. The sculptures I create in chicken wire have no internal structure at all, therefore the play between presence and absence becomes the magical element of the work and gives each piece the lightness of an apparition, a ghost-like quality like a trace from memory or images from a dream."" - 

Whilst researching alternative materials to expensive resin, I came across Ubaldini's work. She uses chicken wire to give the translucent/invisible feel to her work which is something I would like to achieve. I would like to experiment with this material, hoping that the wire will be able to be bent, possibly into intricate shapes (hands). 

Place: Walead Beshty, Fedex



"In this intriguing sculptural series spanning 2005 to 2014, LA-based artist Walead Beshty packaged his artworks in FedEx boxes and shipped them across the country to exhibitions and galleries. But unlike most artists who utilize every bit of care to protect and pad their artwork from the inevitable rough handling of mail carriers, Beshty designed his pieces to break. For his famous FedEx works he constructed laminate glass objects that fit seamlessly within the dimensions of standard size shipping boxes. Through the “normal” handling the objects would inevitably crack and shatter and it was up to curators and gallerists to carefully remove each piece for display. The fragile volumes were then given titles that specifically mention the date, tracking number, and box size of shipment.

Not only was Beshty fascinated by obtaining a “fingerprint” of sorts that documented the journey of each package to its destination, but he also found it curious that a corporation has the ability to copyright the exact dimensions of a box, essentially owning an empty shape." 

The industrial style simplicity of these pieces is what initially drew my attention to Beshty's work. After further research into the series, I was intrigued by how these pieces are essentially created by strangers and anyone connected to the journey of the parcels to the exhibition. Beshty commits the work to a third party to handle or, evidently, mishandle the pieces, leaving the final product entirely out of his control. This is also something similar to Posenenske's Square Tube Series D due to the fact that the artist allows staff of the exhibition to decide how the work is put together and displayed. I love that this trust and negligent attitude towards the work becomes the piece of artwork itself. It makes you consider all the places in between the packing and unpacking the work and how each aspect of this journey may have effected the work. 

With my current ideas in mind, considering making the journey park of the artwork itself would not be relevant to what I am trying to portray in the 'place'. However, as my idea develops over the next week, I would like to keep the transportation of my piece in mind to see if it is something I can develop and incorporate into the work.  

Place: Fred Sandback, Space Shifters Exhibition



'Fred Sandback began making his minimalist sculptures constructed from lines of elastic cord and wire in the 1960s, while he was still a student. Frustrated with what he saw as sculpture's tendency to get 'bogged down in its own materiality', he set out to make something 'without an inside' he said, 'was to have the work right there along with everything else in the world, not up on a spatial pedestal'. From the early 1970s, Sandback began to use off-the-shelf acrylic yarn for his sculptures. These sculptures were often made in response to specific architectural settings, in a process that the artist has described as 'a funny little choreography that doesn't have words, and doesn't have a script. Its a matter of... conjuring up a form and then getting comfortable with it and seeing where it may take you'. - The Hayward Gallery Exhibition Guide 

I like the simplicity of this piece, rather than drawing attention to the strings themselves, they highlight the space inside the lines. This subtle use of material is something I feel works well when you view the piece in person rather than through photographs. I like that the focus is on part of the exhibition space rather than the sculpture itself. This subtle use of material is something I would like to achieve to make viewers aware of the floor space of the exhibition. I would like to look into whether or not I want the focus to be on 'what' they are stepping around. I will need to consider different objects, their materiality and the way they draw attention to themselves and the space

Place: Heidi Bucher, Skinnings Exhibition



The moulds taken of bulildings/doorways display a sort of life in what the mimic. The latex and gauze give the pieces a very skin like look, hinting that the building has shed its skin, or someone has removed this layer of life. 


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 I particularly liked this piece as there was paint and wood stuck to the latex piece that had clearly pulled off the door that this mould was taken from. This creates a feeling of loss. It is interesting that through recording/replicating a place, Bucher has (possibly unintentionally) taken evidence of this place within the piece and shown viewers this through the remains. We can therefore not only see the structure of this foreign place, but we can also assume the materiality of it. 

"The visceral qualities of Heidi Bucher’s intriguing works bear testimony to her deep sensitivity and suggest numerous associative meanings. Well known for her latex casts of room interiors, objects, clothing and the human body, which she herself referred to as Häutungen (skinnings), Bucher’s process invariably preserved a haunting imprint of an architectural surface or an object which was simultaneously both a physical encapsulation of and a liberation from the memories these things held for her. To create her skinnings, Bucher first covered her chosen surface with gauze, pressed liquid latex into it, then when it was almost dry she peeled it off. Bucher dealt with the body and architecture in the same manner, an indication that these concepts are fully intertwined within her work. Her complex working technique was often physically demanding and carried out with great vigour and conviction.

Displayed in the Parasol unit ground-floor gallery is a series of Bucher’s large-scale latex skinnings, suspended from the ceiling, hung on the walls, or simply placed on the floor. Bucher’s first Raumhaut (room skin), Borg, 1976, stands on the floor, a dark and fleshy replica of the cold-store structure of a former butcher’s shop in Switzerland, which she used as her studio. In contrast, a later interior moulding of a former psychiatric sanatorium, Kleines Glasportal, Bellevue Kreuzlingen (Small glass portal, Bellevue Kreuzlingen), 1988, has light passing ethereally through its rubbery translucent windows and seems loaded with psychological connotations. These strange, elusive skins present a paradoxical combination of forms that are sturdy yet fragile, transitory yet perpetual, solid yet flexible.

Being intrigued by the idea of space, whether that occupied by an object, body or architectural interior, the process of skinning allowed Bucher to excavate memories from deep within herself. A mantra she often repeated, Räume sind Hüllen, sind Häute (Spaces are shells, are skins), suggests that she considered all such elements, including memory, as spaces. Whether physical or metaphysical, spaces were of the greatest interest to Bucher when they existed in a state of flux."

Bucher's intrigue into space is fascinating as she considers a memory as a space. This is intriguing as memory isn't a physical thing yet she embodies her memories through spaces. 


"For Bucher’s works are literally traces of the past, very often her own past, growing up in the antique elegance of Winterthur. Here is her commemoration of parquet from a grand house, patterned with a star and looking strangely like a Jasper Johns painting. Here is the floor of her grandparents’ study, mounted in panels on the wall with an eerie iridescence. And the doors of the psychiatric sanitorium in Kreuzlingen where Anna O, one of Sigmund Freud’s first case histories, a tragic figure at the dawn of psychoanalysis, was treated." -

The nostalgic aspects of Bucher's work is something that connects to my current ideas for the project Place. Her grandparent's study is somewhere that means something to her and may be loaded with memories of her past. The physical recreation of this flooring represents those memories, giving the work huge amounts of personal value. As viewers, we see this work and question why the flooring may mean so much to the artist and what memories have been created in this space. The eerie feeling of the 'skin' like material gives haunting, possibly dark memories of the place. My work, is coincidentally similar in that the floor of the place brings back a lot of memories of the place I have chosen. It is interesting as within my ideas and Bucher's work, although the recreation of these memories may mean nothing to viewers, they are loaded with meaning for ourselves. The choice in materials and the way these pieces have been created and displayed is essential in what Bucher tries to suggest to the audience. This is therefore something I would like to explore within my work. 

Place: Liza Lou


Backyard, 1996-1999, Glass beads, sequins, wood, wire, plaster, found objects, 264x288 in. 



"At White Cube, a chainlink cage of security fencing topped with razor-wire stands in the centre of the gallery. There is no gate, no way in or out. What should appear stark and brutal shimmers: the wire, the steel poles and the chainlink are all iced in glass beads, a strange and sparkling coating. It took a year of work, with a group of 20 Zulu women in Durban, South Africa, where Lou has recently been living, to complete. South Africa, lest we forget, is where the British invented the concentration camp, where black townships were corralled behind fences boiling with wire coils, where gated housing estates keep the wealthy safe behind their perimeter walls and razor-wire. Wire is everywhere. It is impossible not to think of compounds in Bosnia, fences in Palestine, the pens at Guantánamo Bay. Guantánamo and Abu Ghraib were on Lou's mind. But what does it mean to anoint this object? I have begun to see each bead as but one of a million light-fingered, dextrous touches. One of the women Lou worked with said of the cage that: "We are covering it with love." Each bead a blessing, then, or a kind of forgiveness."


Altered Spaces: Richard Stone, Under a Bruised Sky


Oil on antique oil painting, lime wood
moulding, waterwhite miroguard AR glazing
156 x 104 cm
The traces of old oil painting underneath this painting gives a frosty, gentle feel to the piece. It speaks to me a lot about loss, something old being taken away or hidden by something new. I like the depth that this base (a found oil painting) gives Stone's painting. The fact that Stone uses found oil paintings gives his work a sort of consistency, without being the same at all. Every piece has a predictable aspect - what will pull through from behind the new layer of paint.
I think it would be beneficial for me to experiment with painting onto old paintings or other similar surfaces. It definitely makes you put a lot more consideration into what tones and colours you use and where. It also adds a lot of depth to a piece which may not have been possible through the simple act of painting onto a plain background. 

Altered Spaces: Luc Tuyman, Der Architekt


After being introduced to Tuyman during Tuesday's lecture, the way in which he disrupts his work through a series of creative transactions caught my attention. Tuyman makes a watercolour sketch of his subject, takes a polaroid of this and then creates his traditional style oil painting on linen. These simple transactions of making and copying give his work a longer, more complex journey. This complex process is hugely contrasting to the simple, washed out, tonal paintings we are presented with. I would like to try complicating the journey of my collage as I am very much used to simply copying from the image.

Having read Thinking Through Painting, Reflexivity and Agency beyond the Canvas (Sternberg Press, I was hugely interested in the conversations surrounding Tuyman's piece, Der Architekt. I like that the book comments on the simplicity of the piece, despite the create process being very complicated. Tuyman reduces figures and structures down to an almost entirely unclear image.

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I also enjoyed the discussion surrounding the seemingly pointless activity of using oil painting to illustrate an important moment in history when there are cameras readily available;

"In Tuyman's case (and Sasnal's as well), it is less about the general question of meaning and the function of the painting, despite - or due to - its proclaimed end; it is about the much more concrete question of painting's competence in light of themes of contemporary history. The question is therefore so imposing because the images of today (and of the last 150 years), which are meant to represent daily events, are precisely not circulated as oil on canvas. There is no need for justifying artists' transposition of this reservoir of media imagery through an old technique, but it also does not go without saying that this is an artistic approach."

It was relieving to read that it is not necessary to always justify the method in which an artist creates his work and why. It was helpful on a personal level as I feel at times I become overwhelmed with wanting to be able to justify everything I chose to do with an intricate excuse, despite it sometimes not being entirely honest. 

Altered Spaces: Justin Mortimer, Depot

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Mortimer's piece changes and evolves as he paints from collages he has created. This process of simplifying and removing information to create a painting is fascinating as you can see fragments of Mortimer's imagination that has been inspired by what is already there. Mortimer transforms this collage, using paint to be ambiguous within what he is portraying. 

I like the idea of using collage to plan the composition of a piece, using found images and combining them to create a drawing plan of what the artist would like to translate through painting. This is definitely something I would like to explore within my work. 

Altered Spaces: Dexter Dalwood, Kurt Kobain's Greenhouse


Dalwood leaves refrences of where his collaged images have come from through roughly cutting the edges around the images. This lack of blending creates disparity between each collaged section of the piece. This effect works well as it gives a very surreal feeling to the piece, particularly where day and night cross paths in the sky.

This could be an effective way of creating a very surreal place, unless I would like my piece to seem realistic. This is something I could experiment with, however, within my current piece I would not like the toes to be obviously collaged from elsewhere.

Altered Spaces: Nigel Cooke, New Accursed Art Club


This piece stood out to me, not because of the final product, but because of the create process and layering that happened when making this painting. The way Cooke layered and changed the painting countless times, for me, creates a sort of relationship between the back and foreground of the painting. Although they are most definitely part of the same piece, there seems to be a huge distance between the green grassy area and the large architectural structure behind. The piece also seems quite time based due to the layers and brush strokes, despite the fact that the painting also seems like a  frozen moment in dystopian land. After watching the video, I noticed that what was painted underneath and worked over, had strong relationships with what remained and what was brought back through to the surface. Particularly where Cooke added a large sun like blob in the background, adding in the correlating highlights onto the figures, he then removed this sun and what was left behind was a suggestion that something may have been there, but no evidence of this. 

It is clear that Cooke is not hugely precious about what he creates, there are so many paintings underneath this that Cooke so happily loses to find the correct dynamics of a final piece. I would like to take this mindset onboard for my piece this week, possibly not working so directly from an image. It will be interesting to see how this will effect the dynamics of my piece. 

Material News: Marian Goodman Gallery, Kemang Wa Lehulere




The exhibition was initially disorientating and hard to piece together, I was unsure of whether each piece should be viewed separately or as a whole. I think this was because of the large piece to the left of the first room. This tower of school desks created a centre piece for the work which immediately drew my attention to it. It was then that I noticed the scattered smashed pottery covering the gallery floor. 



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Material News: Frith Street Gallery, Daniel Silver



For me, Silver's work gave me the feeling that there was unresolved ideas and work within the pieces. It all felt very raw and unrefined. I understand that this may be his intentions and these are not necessarily negative comments, however, this was an uncomfortable atmosphere. 

The postures of these mannequin figures instantly reminded me of a dancing crowd. I joked with my friend about how within the space it looked as though they were the first people to arrive to a nightclub. To me, this was interesting as I think it is clear that Silver has considered the space and how this relates to the figures. 

"A second installation in the rear part of the gallery is composed of actual mannequins made for Silver by Rootstein, the world’s leading mannequin manufacturer (Adel Rootstein, the company’s founder was in fact related to the artist). These figures which have been further manipulated and changed by Silver are caught in various hieratic poses. The group appears to be dancing; their movements ranging from fluid to staccato. They present an uncanny crowd; a curious collision between a night-club scene and Degas’ painting Young Spartans Exercising." (


Although I did not initially recognise this connection myself, I really love the possibilities within a relationship between an old 2D painting and the use of 4D mannequins, which seem to be a group of people dancing, to further embody this idea.  This has created a bold merge of 2 eras and 2 different dimensions which seems to have generated atmospheric tension within the space. The use of mostly cold concrete colours on the mannequins adds to this tense feeling. 


Although the mannequins are reasonably generic figures, there are slight distortions to their body parts, which is what gave me the initial feeling that there was something slightly unresolved about the piece.  Interestingly, this is further highlighted through the mannequins awkward body positions - although seemingly dancing, their arms and legs are stiff and tight. The slightly less refined body parts also give the feel of an ongoing movement taking place, an unfinished dance move or action, adding to the 'unresolved' aspects of the work.

Material News: Doris Salcedo, Untitled (2007)


Initially this piece drew me in due to its uniformity. The filled in and straight edges are satisfying to look at. This mass created through the connection of negative spaces is actually rather morbid. The role of the furniture is entirely removed, leaving them almost mutilated and unable to function. 

"Objects retain traces of those who have used them. It is difficult to throw away such traces of an absent loved one, and yet it is equally difficult to continue using them as though nothing had happened.

In this series wardrobes and beds are rendered monstrous by their merger. All the holes, gaps and cracks in the wood have been meticulously sealed with white cement. It is as if they have been rendered blind and mute, just like those whose silence is ensured by the threat of further violence. This careful sealing of the cracks is also read as an attempt to keep something out or in. But in this case the ‘something’ is elusive, like the nebulous fear of some unforeseen tragedy. Salcedo’s fusion of inanimate matter and human remains provokes a sense of abomination."

There is a common ground between this piece and Allora & Calzadilla's work as they use rock like materials to create something that is seemingly put on hold or frozen. Salcedo fills in these negative spaces not to rid of a memory, but to prevent it from continuing to arise. This therefore adds to my ideas of a 'snapshot' in time, not to tell a story or narrative that is meant to continue after the 'snapshot', but to freeze you in a moment in time. 

Re-Edit: Arthur Jafa - Love is the Message



Having seen Jafa's piece Love is the Message, The Message is Death last year at 180 The Strand during the Everything At Once Exhibition, I was drawn into the piece without any knowledge of 4D fine art, I sat and watched the work with tears running down my face and goosebumps on my arms. This was the first time I have ever felt a connection to 4D fine art. 

"Jafa decided to restart his career as an artist where it had begun: with “the books,” his binders of juxtaposed found images. At the Hammer, rows of them stretched across the center of a gallery, and visitors could flip through them at their leisure.

“It was very inspiring—I could not leave these vitrines, connecting all these images, and looking at his incredible way of editing,” Obrist said of the presentation.

Compiling the binders inspired Jafa to think about how a montage of disparate clips of moving images could be a black art form. And there was powerful raw material: on YouTube, camera phone footage of violence against black people was being publicly disseminated.

“Modern technology is giving us a front-seat view of the unprovoked violence upon black bodies; when you see that, there is no justification for it,” said Cassel Oliver. “There’s a whole generation that’s grown up with this outrage.”

Jafa began to throw such videos into a folder on his computer desktop, along with clips of prominent black activists and athletes, rappers in videos, and people dancing. And he started to find a rhythm in them, a balletic structure where one discrete clip of movement could blend into the next.

He just wasn’t sure what to do with it.

“It was just one of several files that I was always compiling,” he said, starting to talk about the origin of Love Is the Message, The Message Is Death. “Everyone’s struck by this stream of videos of black people being murdered, so I started throwing them in the file, and I strung them together, and put it together very quickly, two or three hours.”"


My favourite part about Jafa's piece is the way he has intertwined cuts of videos that are so normal, for example, people dancing and people riding bikes, with such emotionally hampering videos of violence and hate. This combination works well to create an emotive piece because of the stark and shocking contrasts between all of the clips, despite the running common ground of racism between all of these people. Some evoke smiles, some tears, and some pride. These strong emotional feelings are emphasised through the music (Kanye West's Ultralight Beam) as it creates an almost religious atmosphere, connecting the audience to what feels like a higher power. 

Again, through the use of cutting readymade videos, this artist, as many others have, has given the clips an entirely different focus and meaning than they previously would have had within their own individual context. 


Re-Edit: Cory Arcangel - Paganini's 5th Caprice

My response to this piece was initially confusion. I am very new to the 4D fine art field and therefore struggled to grasp something I had only previously seen on my facebook or twitter, and call it fine art. I therefore tried to be openminded about this piece and by doing this I began to see similarities between it and Marclay's work. Arcangel combines multiple cuts of readymade home videos and gives them a different purpose when combining them to create the piece Paganini's 5th Caprice. The actual footage is at times, very poor, yet the sound quality is reasonably good. Through this, it is clear that the importance of this piece lies within the sound, rather than the image. I like this concept as the message/aim of the video would still be achieved had he only used audio. This is something I would like to experiment with in my piece, possibly through being able to disconnect the video and audio from having the same meaning.

Re-Edit: Christian Marclay - Telephones


After watching Marclay's piece, Telephones, I felt that the repetitive cuts video clips created an atmosphere of suspense. The repeated words create vague conversation between all of the people, despite them being in different time periods, times of day, and settings. The repetition and words used throughout the piece creates suspension throughout: this is emphasised by the fact we are only aware of half of the conversation - we do not know what is happening on the other side of the phone. 

I would somehow like to incorporate the use of small cuts of varying clips into my work as I think this is effective in capturing and maintaining the viewers attention. This type of editing gives continuity to the videos through a general narrative (in this case a phone call conversation) despite them being so different. I also like the sense of confusion it causes, disorientating the viewer until they continue to watch further into the video. I may also want to consider whether or not I use a narrative within my video or not. 


Collections: Bruce Nauman's Dance or Exercise on the Perimeter of a Square





Although Nauman's piece is a form of performance art and video, his work initially stood out to me due to the  piece's similarities to my work: The use of feet and movement and "expressing the passage of time, its functioning and continuity" ( reading this article, I began to further relate to Nauman's ideas surrounding the question:

“What does an artist do when he’s alone in his studio? My conclusion was that [if] I was an artist and I was in the studio, then whatever I was doing in the studio must be art. At this point art became more of an activity and less of a product.” - 

The discussion of art becoming an activity and less of a product draws similarities for my desire to record footprints within a larger, more famous and popular exhibition or gallery. 

However, I like that the artist studies his own personal movement within his studio. This brings to mind ideas of recording and keeping a personal diary of ones life. Each footstep will remind that person of the movements they made and what they were doing. For me, this provokes rather lonely yet poetic thoughts and feelings. 

I am now questioning why I have only used other people's footprints to collect information about their movement. This makes me think about possible comparisons and 2 piece artworks: one activity carried out by a stranger with their footprints recorded, and that same activity carried out by me with my footprints recorded. This would draw on the idea of self comparison and insecurity through the comparison of my life to a complete stranger, again, a very lonely emotion. 

Collections: On Kawara's I GOT UP


It is not the visual aspects of On Kawara's work that caught my attention, however the process in which the work has been collected. Kawara places complete trust in others for the creation of his pieces as he sends the postcards to selected individuals across countries and continents, recording what time he got up and where. He places trust in everyone involved in the travel of these postcards as without this, his piece would not be possible. 

So far, my work with footprints has been using mine, along with other people's that I know and trust. However, with my plans to create a gallery space and collect footprints on the floor I would like to place trust, as Kawara has, in complete strangers to help create my artwork. In the future, when I am not constricted by a timeframe for my work I would then like to experiment with working in larger and more popular galleries or open spaces with large amounts of the public visiting per day. Similar to Kawara's work, the more trust I place in strangers to create this piece with me, the further my project will go and I will collect a lot more information through footprints. 

Collections: Idris Khan's Homage to Bernd Becher




Initially, Becher's Gas Tanks piece struck me through its cleverly thought out simplicity. The standardisation of each photograph through lighting and angle makes all the buildings, although different, seem entirely the same. The collection of images give a structure so full of power a calm and eery feel. This is similar to the atmosphere I feel I have created within the 10 collections of footprints. Footprints offer powerful information about people and their lives, yet the prints on the paper create a very empty, clinical atmosphere. I therefore connected with their work on Gas Tanks and other pieces, considering their standardised and minimalistic form of presentation for my own collection. 




However, after becoming exposed to Khan's piece Homage to Bernd Becher, I was excited by the confusion of the piece. At first glance, I assumed this image was an architectural style drawing, although slightly messy. However, after learning that this was simply a combination of all of Becher's Gas Tanks this piece was far more interesting. The way the lines and structures within each photograph combine to make such an intense and energetic piece is completely contrasting to the individual photograph's order and standardisation. I like how Khan purposely created disorder from something that made sense. This is something I would like to consider within my work as I currently have a collection of 10 pieces - footprints that are clear and organised in an orderly, hour by hour time frame. I would like to maybe play around with these images and see how I could present them in a different way. Possibly rather than aiming to show what times people were present, I could use this to show how many were present over the evening.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Ana Lupas



Before reading the context of Lupas’ piece, I struggled to connect her work with ‘collections’ other than through a collection of photographs and pipes.

“Beginning in 1964, Ana Lupas oversaw the creation of large straw structures in villages in Transylvania. She enlisted the help of villagers who used weaving techniques traditionally employed to make wreaths for harvest festivals. Lupas originally saw the artwork as the communal act of making and displaying these objects in the local area.
Lupas defined her role as ‘a bridge between the ancestral and the future’. Individual structures might change and decay, but the artwork remained as long as the process continued over time and the activity expanded out to involve new participants. The project developed in this way, but by the mid-1970s, the economic and social changes in Romania made it difficult for participants to continue.
Lupas could no longer ensure that new objects would be made each year. This changed the status of the structures from products of an ongoing process to relics. Lupas tried different ways to preserve them, first by restoring the original wreaths, then by drawing them, making more than 200 drawings. Eventually, in the early 2000s, she developed the technique of sealing them in metal ‘tins’. This solution satisfied the artist as a practical means of preservation and a way of combining the natural and traditional ‘wreaths of wheat’ with modern, industrial associations through the metal casing.”

After reading this context I decided that Lupas’ work was a collection of traditions, collection of people, and a collection of developments over time. I really like this form of collection as it is slightly deeper than simply a collection of photographs or objects. The metal structures are evidence of her work in Romania, rather than sculptures in themselves. This is captivating as knowing the story behind her intentions makes the objects seem far more important than they had been on first impressions. The context is also important to connect the photographs to the metal structures as initially, it was difficult to focus on them both being connected.
Within Lupas’ work, I have learnt that sometimes the context can make the artwork mean a lot more than one originally thinks. I find this type of art a lot more interesting than pieces like like Matin Parr’s which seem very literal.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Marina Abramovic


Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Martin Parr




Parr has collected a series of his own photographs exploring themes of class, leisure, consumer culture at home in Britain and abroad.

In the particular piece photographed, he presents the collection in a systematic grid, similar to the organised style of Ruwedel’s photography.

Personally, although the display and colours are aesthetic, I dislike the seemingly random order and subject of the photography. In comparison to the other pieces exhibited within the gallery, this piece of work seemed to lack depth and intrigue. I now know that from my work on ‘Collections’ I want to look further than the simple idea of a random collection of things.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Barbara Kruger




Krugers piece displayed on multiple changing screens was one of my favourite pieces of work I saw within the boiler house.

She has collected a number of artists opinions and thoughts on the impact of the media and technology on the way we create and see art. Kruger has presented this on a collection of screens (another form of collection within the collection of quotes).

My favourite aspect of this is how the screens are constantly changing, which could represent the ever developing and changing use of technology within art.

The way she has used technology to present this piece of work is consistent with the theme of her quotes which is, in my opinion, well planned.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Theaster Gates






Behind what you can physically see within Gates work, the artist has collected facts within politics surrounding the Civil Rights Movement. Fire hose pipes were used in a number of situations during the black civil rights movement to fight, destruct and kill. He has also collected questions within himself:

“How do we think of the history of Black political engagement that required acts of unrestrained heroism and life-threatening engagement? What is the state of Civil Rights, especially now that there are splinters of class-based need, new marginalized groups, and the ever present belief that things are better for all because of the election of 2008?
(Gates 2011, accessed August 2012.)’”

These are questions that Gates has tried to engrain within his piece, and therefore stimulate a collection of questions within the viewers thoughts.

Gates has displayed this information surrounding the Civil Rights Movement through decommissioned fire hoses that symbolise those used within the political events: In May 1963 a group of black children and students in Birmingham, Alabama, embarked on a peaceful march as part of the struggle for equal rights for black people in America. The Birmingham Commissioner for Public Safety, Eugene ‘Bull’ Connor, ordered the police to use fire hoses to spray the crowd with water in order to break up the march and force the demonstrators into submission. The force of the blasts of water was immense, and many of the children and students were injured. Gates has written, ‘For days, fire hoses and canons were used to intimidate America’s wrongly served.’ (Theaster Gates, press release for An Epitaph for Civil Rights and Other Domesticated Structures, Kavi Gupta, Chicago 2011,, accessed August 2012.) The police brutality was widely condemned, and with President Kennedy criticising the Birmingham police, these events were seen as a pivotal moment in the Civil Rights Movement. Gates commented, ‘The event led to immediate shifts in the American South and created opportunity for Black people to integrate.’ (Gates 2011, accessed August 2012.)

I really like this piece as, before I read the context of this work, it was very simple and bold. There is such an important and striking meaning to his use of collected decommissioned firehoses, that having read the description of the piece, I was in awe of the simplicity of the collection of objects and how they have caused such destruction. 





Artist: Marina Abramović

"In 1974, Marina Abramović did a terrifying experiment. At a gallery in her native Belgrade, Serbia, she laid out 72 items on a trestle table and invited the public to use them on her in any way they saw fit. Some of the items were benign; a feather boa, some olive oil, roses. Others were not. "I had a pistol with bullets in it, my dear. I was ready to die." At the end of six hours, she walked away, dripping with blood and tears, but alive. "How lucky I am," she says in her still heavy accent, and laughs."

"when she invited the public to use those objects on her frozen figure, Abramović exposed a savagery lurking beneath the surface of otherwise civilised human beings. At first, visitors to the gallery were hesitant to approach her. Then, in a kind of Lord of the Flies scenario, they started subtly to torture her."

 Abramović's work shows strong connections to my plan for my own instillation through the interaction between the audience and the instillation. Her piece acts as an experiment, testing what people do when there are no rules or consequences. This is a very interesting concept within itself and within my piece I feel it will also be an experiment, leaving a visitor alone in a room allows them to consider, feel and do things they may not in an every day situation. The intimacy of this will allow them to be honest when cutting the figure in relation to what makes them feel sensual. The rules Abramović presents the audience with are a lot less restricting as they are allowed to act on whatever they feel. My rules however, restrict the audience to considering sensualism in terms of what makes them feel pleasure, and what would be missing if they couldn't feel pleasure. 

When reading descriptions of Abramović's work, I envisioned an empty room, her lay on a table, with one or two people using these objects on her at a time. Allowing the audience to have the confidence to act as if no one was watching. However, I looked further into this piece and watched a video where stills of the 6 hour piece were shown:

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This was really interesting as the room in which her piece was held seemed to be full of crowds of people. It was a far more intense and busy situation than I had imagined. Prior to seeing these images, I thought that the atmosphere of her piece was very similar to the atmosphere I want to create within my instillation. However, now I am certain that I would prefer one or two people visiting the instillation at one time to allow them to feel the full intimacy of their thoughts.



Exhibition: "Shunga: Sex and Pleasure in Japanese Art"

"On the one hand, the expertly executed paintings and prints were liberating, featuring both genders freely and enthusiastically partaking in sexual acts. On the other hand, the artworks were light-hearted and comedic, focusing not only on romantic moments but also on the bizarre and awkward contortions that are more laughter-inducing than arousing. One piece shows a powerful women is seen experiencing a “happy ending” while another spotlights a duo of extravagantly clothed lovers attempting to feverishly circumnavigate their never-ending costumes." -The Huffington Post

This is a collection of work exhibited in 2013 that stood out to me when researching pleasure portrayed within artwork online. Although the Japanese Art aspect of the collection is not relevant to the instillation I would like to create, this collection contains artwork portraying humans feeling pleasure. This is really interesting as it illustrates how pleasure is such a subjective and personal sensation. None of the pieces of work within this collection present the same idea surrounding sex and pleasure and often they are not the conventional portrayal of the genital areas. The artists clearly have different views on what pleasure is to them. This is something that I hope, through my instillation, people will consider. This will therefore make their visit to the instillation a very personal and intimate experience whereby they must confront their own senses.  



Chobunsai Eishi (1756–1829); Young woman dreaming of Ise Monogatari



Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), Diving Woman and Octopi



Kitagawa Utamaro, ‘Fancy-free type’ (Uwaki no so), from the series Ten Types in the Physiognomic Study of Women (Fujin sogaku juttai)

Place: Julie Mehretu, Myriads


 "Bilaterally symmetrical and vaguely cruciform, the distribution of calligraphic marks, daubs, and sprays in the first panel of Myriads, Only by Dark resembles a splayed and messily dissected human body. Subtitled (unfolded body map), the anthropomorphic form drips rivulets of grey ink and is bracketed by handprints that recall prehistoric cave paintings or artwork by David Hammons. In the second print, the mass disperses into myriad feathery gestures and staccato marks. Its subtitle, (mathematics of droves), calls to mind population and migration statistics. In the third and fourth prints, skeins of calligraphic strokes appear to coalesce around a nebulous chasm that eventually resolves into a colorfully tinged rhombus.

Proceeding from left to right, Myriads offers a visual analogue to something Mehretu terms “self-ethnography,” a systematic untangling of the effects of history, heritage, and geography on the formation of personal identity. Mehretu is well known for her large, densely-packed paintings built up with layers of geographical, meteorological, and architectural diagrams, maps, and graphs. Handprints, which are visible in three of the four panels in Myriads, are new to her work. Appearing throughout the history of art, they signal the presence and individuality of a work’s creator. For example, David Hammons’s body prints (which Mehretu cites as a precedent), imprint the artist’s black, male body—and, by extension, all of its contingent experiences—at the center of his work. Mehretu does something of the same, impressing her palms and invoking her body as the site in which lineages, origins, and statistical patterns of population and migration converge."


Through research surrounding artists that work with their own personal history, I came across Mehretu's polyptych. Conceptually, her work has similarities to mine as she reflects on her past - although not using a specific place for this - she presents us with a reflection on her life. This has inspired me to possibly present these paving slabs as a representation of something that has followed me through my life in memory, effecting decisions and feelings that I make/have. 


Place: Karin Ruggaber, An Outside of a House


"PEER's gallery comprises two shops, which together form a double-frontage unit that faces squarely onto the street. The space is modest, and almost domestic in size. These once-commercial units are connected internally by an opening that is roughly the proportions of an average doorway.

On the wall opposite the entrance of the first space Karin Ruggaber has installed a multi-part, polychromatic sculpture, the individual elements of which are made primarily of moulded concrete. This constellation of smaller components is precisely arranged and fixed to the wall to make up a large diagonal relief that stretches from the floor to nearly the height of the ceiling. In the second space, the same sculptural language of material and form is used, but Ruggaber here works with the horizontal plane of the floor. Once again she employs the diagonal, so that a large triangular shape emanates from the furthest corner of the doorway and sweeps across into the centre of the room. Ruggaber has described this work as an attempt to "build a haptic floor". These two large, singular works each inhabit their respective domains. Put simply, a work for the wall and a work for the floor." -

"SS: I was interested in the decision-making process that you went through when you were asked to do the project at PEER?

KR: From the very beginning I was thinking to make something about the dynamic of the space. There’s one space and there’s another one – the double gallery space seems to ask for either repetition or contrast. I wanted to respond to the setting, and to change something about the square-ness and direction of the space. The diagonal is a response to that. The first experience of the space is from the outside and the complete view of the double frame, and then you come in and you reverse and look out. The work is to do with that – it’s about reversing something, about how one moves in the space


What I like about the floor piece is that it changes as you walk around it; you have different angles and the whole dynamic of the piece shifts. With painting you have one viewpoint, with sculpture you move around it. You are in the same space as it.

PL: In the press release there’s the term haptic...

KR: Haptic floor. Yes it’s a paradox, because a floor is not something that we touch or have a direct visual relationship with – we don’t need to look at it while we walk. I’m interested in making a visual relationship to the floor and in this line between a visual-consciousness – and how you understand something in physical terms. It is to do with standing height, shifting perspective and the relationship to the ground." -



I initially connected with this piece due to the fact that within the series, there is a 3D piece using the floor horizontally which is ideally what I would like my piece to do. After further research into her work, I found this interview where she mentions the idea of 'haptic floor' which I feel matches well with my ideas. The relationship between us, our feet and the floor are often overlooked due to the lack of a 'direct visual relationship' nor one through touch. This is something both I and Ruggaber are/would like to explore. Through working across the floor, viewers own relationships with the floor is challenged as they unexpectedly have to consider what they are touching and where they step. 

Ruggaber's piece is interesting as she only uses a section of the gallery floor to create this awareness of the space. This is something I could consider to reduce the cost of the piece - I may then be able to use resin or other materials I would not be able to use if the piece were to cover the whole exhibition space. 


Place: Do Ho Suh, Home Within a Home


 "A 1:1 scale replica of two houses the artist had previously lived in, one inside the other. Created in purple fabric, his traditional Korean home, where he lived in when he was a child, is enveloped and suspended within a more modern building, his first apartment building when he came to the United States, located in Providence, Rhode Island." -

Do Ho Suh has created a place and given it the ability to be transported from place to place within a suitcase. The use of materials creates a ghostly atmosphere, similar to what I imagine a hologram would look like. I like the kind of 'idea' or 'memory' of the building this gives the piece as the light shines through the work, it does not feel like the buildings have been physically recreated - it is more like we are looking into the mind of Do Ho Suh himself. 

This successful creation of an insight into the memory of the artist really connects to my ideas for this project. I would like to create something that is only partially visible to viewers, giving them the impression that what they are seeing is not entirely real. Here, Do Ho Suh has used mesh to give the piece its translucency. I would now like to brainstorm and experiment with materials similar to this, allowing me to create something that looks like the physical embodiment of a memory. 

This is also an interesting piece because of the way that the artist has created it to allow him to pack it up and transport it around the world in a suitcase. I like the idea that he is able to carry all of his homes with him as he travels around the world, presenting this fragment of his memory as he unpacks and exhibits the work. This transportation has become part of the beauty of the piece itself. 

Place: Monika Sosnowska, Space shifter's Exhibition



'Sosnowska's work explores the psychological impact of architectural space. Interested in the way architecture can influence behaviour and, on a larger scale, help shape society and reflect political ideologies, the artist uses familiar architectural elements and materials to create disorientating installations, spaces and objects. As Sosnowska comments, 'my works are...about introducing chaos and uncertainty. They make reality stop being obvious'. Many of her sculptures draw on and subvert the existing architectural logic of their host building.' - The Hayward Gallery Exhibition Guide

Sosnowska's exploration of the physiological impact of architectural space has strong connections to my current idea as I explore the memories I have of an 'architectural space' (the hospital entrance) and the psychological connotations of the area.  Rather than 'disorientating' viewers I would like to use materials to make my interpretation and previous experience of the hospital entrance a physical thing, rather than it remaining a fragment of my mind. I would therefore like the piece to be confrontational in the sense that it makes viewers aware of where they place their feet around the floor of the exhibition space, just as I have done through this hospital entrance many a times in the past, to avoid inflicting further pain on myself. 

I am currently struggling to think of materials I could use to place on the exhibition floor due to the cost of the quantity of resin I would like to use. Having looked at Sosnowska's work at this exhibition and considering her work today, I may want to think about using familiar objects to the space my work will be exhibited at. This would reduce the cost of my piece. 

Place: Doris Salcedo, The White Cube


Ultimately, I felt this piece was far more of a memorial than it was an installation piece. The piece was hugely engaging due to its incredible intricacy. The water sitting on the surface was incredible and very difficult to understand logistically. However, I didn't feel as though it connected to my current ideas very well. It may be too early on within this project to take influence from this work. 


Looking back on this exhibition having worked further into my project (it is Tuesday now), I do see some close connections between this piece and some of my current initial ideas. The piece being on the floor and the fact that the public are allowed to walk and step over the work has strong connections to my idea of either creating a new flooring representing my personal memories of a place. It also connects to my other idea of placing objects on the floor dotted around the exhibition space to make people more aware of where they are stepping and placing their feet.

At this exhibition, someone stands at the entrance to the room telling people they must not step on the words - only around. This prevents destruction of the piece and stops people from possibly slipping. If I were to take either of these two ideas forward, I would need to consider how I would prevent people from tripping or standing on the objects. 


Place: Charlotte Posenenske, Space Shifters Exhibition




Posenenske's piece Square Tubes Series D was one of my favourite pieces within this exhibition. Initially, I overlooked the work entirely, having to return to the two previous rooms to look for the piece thinking I had missed it. 

I don't think that the fact that staff of the exhibition or anyone else in possession of this piece are given the ability to decide how each module of the structure is put together is hugely relevant to my current ideas.

However, it is hugely relevant that within the exhibition site, this object has been placed somewhere that it blends into the background, rather than being the focal point of the room (as all of the other pieces seem to be). Posenenske has created something so visibly obvious and mundane that it becomes completely invisible. This alters the gallery space and makes us question our surroundings; what we accept as part of the site, and what we accept as part of the building used to exhibit - this piece explores the interaction between the two

This is something I could consider within my work - the fact that the hypersensitivity cannot be seen by others (it blends into everything that is considered normal). My memories of the entrance of this hospital are not remembered by others - they are invisible and the physical entrance has remained the same over the last 10 years, something that the rest of the public consider normal. The idea of things hiding in plain sight is something I could  possibly experiment with in my work for this project. 

Place: Shapeshifters Exhibition, Article by Laura Cumming

"Twenty artists play with perception and space. Their art tends to the comical – Anish Kapoor’s distorting mirrors, Monika Sosnowska’s handrails looping out of control, Yayoi Kusama’s tide of silver spheres that appear to swither between concave and convex according to our passing movements. But the show also tends to the sublime: Robert Irwin’s soaring Perspex prisms ripple with rainbow light; Ann Veronica Janssens’s sheets of glass reflect the world in mysteriously altered colours; Kapoor’s stainless steel mirrors hold and amplify the ever-changing sky.

Dancers holding mirrors move through the gallery: we see ourselves by chance – brighter, smaller, flaring then flickering out. The mirrors themselves seem to die when faced with a blank white wall. In a very beautiful work by the Danish artist Jeppe Hein, a pair of hinged mirrors turn like the slow sails of a windmill, reflecting each other, and us, and the architecture of the Hayward in bewildering configurations that turn the world upside down and inside out; and yet the conceit is very simple.

This is what makes the show so peaceful and meditative. Everything here begins with confusion or mystification, but each piece is inherently self-explanatory. By far the most complex is a maze-like installation by the Polish artist Alicja Kwade, in which objects on the ground appear to change colour as you move, walls seem to be transparent, and shadows appear (or disappear) in unlikely places. A gentle wander in and out reveals how this is achieved, but still the lovely illusions remain. Most wondrous of all is Richard Wilson’s marvellous 20:50: a waist-height sea of oil through which you are able to walk, miraculously untarnished, seeing the gallery around you doubled, yet also halved, in its dark mirror-still surface." -

Having visited this exhibition, to me, this article is entirely correct in the way it describes it as a very calm and simple one, despite complexities behind each piece. The work looks minimalistic. The longer you spend considering each piece of work, the more you come to understand what it is about - this is something I usually struggle with when it comes to sculpture and installation pieces, however, it was quite simple here. 

Altered Spaces: Ian Munroe, Where Does One Thing End and the Next Begin?

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Altered Spaces: Frieze Art Fair, Sara Cwynar


Sara Cwynar 

Tracy (Moschino), 2017

Dye sublimation print on aluminium

"Blending elements of photography, sculpture, collage, and design, Sara Cwynar’s work explores the processes by which images and objects acquire, change, and lose their meaning over time." (

"One of the major themes in my work is this idea of construction, which speaks not only to the way I physically combine objects and rebuild images, but also to how photography uses framing to create narratives, and how we as viewers draw meaning from those narratives. I see these new techniques as a literal way of reinforcing these ideas."

Altered Spaces: The White Cube Gallery, Julie Mehretu


Mumbaphilia (J.E) 

Ink and Acrylic on Canvas 

243.8 x 182.9 cm  


"Beginning with a process of obscuration where the found image is blurred and manipulated through Photoshop, it is then airbrushed onto canvas as an abstract departure point. Reduced to a background haze of colour, each painting is then built up through an extensive, intricate layering process using screen printing, ink and acrylic marks which are drawn, painted, airbrushed or erased. The original image, now just a blur, is metaphorically nuanced and elliptical, existing as a ghostly background presence whose visible highlights and eruptions of colour on the canvas surface pronounce moments of action and possible shifts of axis. This confluence and dispersion of energetic and decisive marks is respondent to the varied histories the photographs invoke." 

Mehretu's piece Mumbaphilia was my favourite exhibited at the cube. The translucent background was interesting as it was so clear and bold yet difficult to detangle into a found image. I like that the piece is so completely different to what it may have started off as because this leaves so much to be discussed. However, to me, the more I continue to look at the work, the more confused I become and I therefore struggle to connect with Mehretu's work. Within my project I think I would like images to remain at least slightly definable.


Material News: Frieze Art Fair, Berlinde De Bruyckere


I previously researched De Bruyckere for the Ideas Factory Project and really liked her sculptures. I was excited to have seen her work in the flesh. I think this piece has strong connections to my work due to the glass dome. I was particularly interested in this aspect as if I had the time and money I would have used an acrylic or glass  cylinder rather than an acrylic cube. I think it is a much more subtle way of presenting an encased piece, the corners of a box take a lot of attention away from the objects within it, however, a cylinder has no beginning nor end which works a lot better in terms of presentation of what is within. 

This therefore confirmed for me that I would definitely want to use a cylinder instead of a box for my sculpture if I had more time on this project. 

Material News: Latifa Echakhch

I came across Echakhch's work whilst flicking through the book Vitamin 3D. The images of her work stood out to me as they seemed so simple yet large scale, I wanted to understand what they were about. I particularly liked the piece Resolution, a wall painting using the walls and floors, creating the feeling that it is entering the third dimension. 


"Resolution is an extract of text from a United Nations Security Council resolution: passages often ended with this formula. It’s a strange sounding sentence, like a false translation. I did it first in Thailand in March 2003, during the last moments before the start of the Iraq war. The UN Council condemned a military intervention by the USA, but it wasn’t respected, and I wanted to question the efficacy of this international coalition. This is the source, but out of context you can use it for a lot of subjects. The formula is painted by hand on the wall in black. When you see it close-up you see all the imperfections of the application. You can easily imagine the artist in front of the wall painting this sentence as a punished kid at school" (www.moussemagazine)

"Decides to Remain Seized of the Matter"

This piece is relevant within my research due to its connections to current affairs and the artists response to what is going on around them, possibly in the news. I like that through the creation of this piece, as mentioned in Vitamin 3D, Echakhch questions the role of the artist, suggesting her powerlessness to intervene with current affairs.


"So by remaining "seized of the matter"—or, in the vernacular, by formally keeping the issue on the front burner—the 15-member Security Council is officially telling the 191-member General Assembly to keep its mitts off for the time being. There have been occasions when the General Assembly has discussed a matter being handled by the Security Council, but the "decides to remain seized of the matter" expression pretty much precludes the body from taking any meaningful action.

A small number of international legal experts also consider the phrase a linguistic maneuver to head off unilateral action. The theory goes that the Security Council is actually hinting to various national governments to hold off on, say, sending tanks across the Euphrates River, since the dispute is still being adjudicated. If that is indeed the case, the phrase's power seems somewhat dubious—nations routinely ignore Security Council pleas to remain idle." (


Having come to understand the phrase this piece was inspired by, looking back at her work, I begin to feel a lot of neutrality coming through in the piece. The cool blue colours shout neither anger nor happiness. The lighter blue patches seem to seep out of the darkness in a slightly morbid way, which to me, brings to mind a sort of balance between bad and good. The phrase used by the UNSC usually prevents the bad but doesn't bring good, something very neutral, which I think Echakhch has captured perfectly within this piece.  

Material News: Allora & Calzadilla: 2 Hose Petrified Petrol Pump


This piece stood out to me initially as I am often drawn to the simplicity of concrete/rock. I like the way they have used these materials to convey their idea, using rock to illustrate how something has frozen in time. Rock is hard and difficult to change which adds to the permanent feel of the sculpture. The traditional stone carving method adds to the idea of things being in the past. 

The way in which I use the materials I select for the creation of my sculpture is something I may want to connect with the meaning of the piece. Similarly to Allora & Calzadilla, I would like to create a 'snapshot' of the blurry struggle that was and is the Indonesian Tsunami, freezing a possible moment in time. Although I will not have enough time to carve into rock, there are many other ways I can use materials to give the feeling of permanency. For example, creating a stillness through the lack of colour of materials, removing huge amounts of energy from the objects and therefore adding to the feeling of a moment frozen in time. 

Material News: Damian Ortega

Throughout Ortega's The Independent project, he creates a theatrical atmosphere through his bold use of space and this interaction with found objects. Although I have not seen Ortega's work in the flesh, it is clear from images that he has used energetic and intense articles and has embodied this within sculptures that create a calm yet dramatic atmosphere. 


Ulysses Way 2010

352 x 222 x 75 cm

Ortega takes reference from the headline "Gloomy predictions raise stakes as next round of climate talks draws near." Ulysses Way (31st August, 2010) is a monument to the plight of the Pakistan flood survivors

I like this piece as it seems very real. The carefully balanced objects seem to be so hastily piled up, giving us the immediate sense that it could topple over from above us any minute. This is interesting as it brings our bodily awareness to life, as we view the piece we become more aware of the danger it could cause. I like this type of interaction with the viewer - although not making us feel as if we were sitting on the bike dangerously riding through floods, it evokes a strong sense of risk and emergency. 

This piece has given me ideas surrounding what feelings I would like to provoke within viewers. I think as they view my piece, I would like them to feel as though they were experiencing a struggle, similar to those left devastated by the Indonesian Tsunami. The clear acrylic glass will allow this as they can see through into a confusing and stressful moment of struggle. 

Re Edit: Smoking in Movies - The Guardian Article

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"In 2015, 47% of films rated PG-13 had at least one occurrence of smoking or tobacco use according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). That figure has fallen since 2014 but the CDC still notes that “individual movie company policies alone have not been efficient at minimizing smoking in movies”."

"In particular, the CDC calls out the Walt Disney Company and 21st Century Fox for having created 56% of the youth-rated movies in which tobacco appears. "

"Last year, the World Health Organisation published a comprehensive reportwhich looked at the link between smoking on screen and adolescents taking up the habit. They, like the US surgeon general and the US National Cancer Institute, reviewed empirical evidence and found a causal link between the two.

That empirical evidence included several brain studies. In one, when participants were shown film segments that included right-handed adult smokers, their brains lit up in areas that are responsible for craving as well as those that are in charge of motor planning for the right hand. The findings suggested that, after watching actors smoke, participants were mentally preparing to light a cigarette too."


After having a look online for movies that included smoking scenes to add to my piece, I came across this article. This was very interesting as I have been looking at old movies to show how the view on smoking was far more positively skewed in the past, in comparison to now. However, this article proves that it is possible that not a lot has changed in Hollywood surrounding views on smoking. This is something I could look into within my piece, rather than focusing on the past for my visual footage I could also use more present footage? Rather than showing how the past and present are different through the difference in the video and audio clips, I could show how Hollywood is different to reality. This could be interesting to develop on.

Re-Edit: Douglas Gordon - 24 Hour Psycho




After reading Stefano Basilico's writing on Gordon's 24 Hour Psycho I was intrigued by the fact that the entire movie was slowed down to create a 24 hour piece whilst also removing the soundtrack. In Basilico's words; "familiar scenes become unfamiliar and incomprehensible, since they operate outside the normal framework of time." I like the idea that you can entirely change the way a movie is perceived through simple things such a speed. By slowing down this video, the suspense usually built up in thrillers is destroyed, thus creating a predictable and almost boring movie. In my opinion this seems to give the movie a slightly romantic twist, however, it is something I find hard to comprehend in terms of creating 'art. Predictable and boring is what I usually try and stay away from within my pieces, however, I have not yet experimented in the 4D field and this therefore could be an interesting experiment 

Collections: Yves Klein


- Large Blue Anthropometry, (280 x 428 cm), Dry pigment and synthetic resin on paper, mounted on canvas

"For his Anthropométries series, Klein famously used nude female models drenched in paint as “brushes.” His system of pressing bodies against the paper support (which was later mounted on canvas) rejected any illusion of a third dimension in the pictorial space. In these works, the subject, object, and medium become confused with one another to produce a trace of the body’s presence."

Klein's work was suggested to me during the group crit today. Personally, I have not really taken a liking to his work. I can see similarities between his and mine through using other people as tools to apply medium to paper. However, I do not like the seemingly intentional use of the women's bodies. When using an entire body to create art on the floor, there is no order, pattern or normality to the work. Through my use of footprints I am looking specifically at the movement of a person when they are doing a specific thing, these marks made by the footprints are simply enhancements of what would naturally be there. To me, it would be far more interesting for the artist to have studied someone lying down whilst performing an activity that would conventionally be done lying down, for example, sleeping.

Having disliked this artist's work, I have developed on my own ideas. I had not thought of studying any other type of everyday activities other than those involving footprints left behind. If I had more time for this project, I would like to go on to work with studying the movement of people within their everyday lives through the prints they naturally leave, this would expand my project from only studying footprints to others, for example, handprints and full bodies. 



Collections: Trisha Brown



- Compass, 2006, Soft ground etching with relief roll

"Brown used paper roughly the size of her body and moved across it with charcoal and pastel held by her hands and feet – pivoting, rolling and skidding. When the work is paired with video documentation, as in this exhibition, you can cheat and assign the marks with their corresponding gestures." (

Brown uses her body and skills within dance and performance to create artwork. The fact that these pieces' initial purposes were to document ideas within dance sparked my interests within her work. Her thought process was not to create a beautiful image, but to study the shapes that a body movement would create when recorded using paper and charcoal. To me, similarities can be drawn between this and Nauman's work as he records his activities within his studio to document his movement and Brown records her dance pieces to document her ideas. Both carrying out creative activities whilst also creating this unpredictable art with their bodies.

Brown's piece compass gives a feeling of a very quick movement with the feet only hitting the paper around 4 times. The sweeping lines between the footprints give the piece a romantic, fast pace feel. However, at first glance, my interpretation of this piece was that the movement was rather careless. This is interesting as the initially thought 'carelessness' hugely contrasts the intention of recording a precise idea. 

Collections: Eadweard Muybridge's The Horse In Motion



I came across these stills of Muybridge's motion photography when looking for artists that use the concept of movement within their work. The stills of his work reminded me of my own 10 pieces that could be seen as 'stills' from the 10 hour collection of footprints. I like how each 'still' shows a moment of movement, recording it without any visual movement. However, in Muybridge's work, when these images are collected together and combined and viewed consecutively at fast pace, a moving image is created.

This is something I could possibly experiment with, although the time frames I have (1 hour each) may be long. I would therefore have to change the piece of paper on the floor much more often; possibly every 5 minutes?


Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Bela Kolarova

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In this piece, Kolarova has collected paperclips together, presenting them in a systematic style to create a subtle, larger image of a paperclip.

“Solution for Clips 1969 is an assemblage of paperclips on board. Kolárová arranged the clips in regular columns, but made slight alterations so that the outline of a large paperclip can be detected in the arrangement of paperclips. In this way the usual distinction between image and medium – in this case both paperclips – is playfully collapsed. The paperclips are attached to the board by glue and the support board of the work is signed and dated by the artist. The black cloth-covered frame was made specifically for the work and designed by the artist.”

I really like the idea that the medium is the image and the image is the medium. It’s a very simple yet clever way of presenting a mundane collection of paperclips. Although there is no historical or social deeper meaning behind this piece, the play on medium and image is comic and engaging. A basic collection of everyday objects does not have to be boring.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Jenny Holzer






In this piece, Holzer has collected letters forming words, forming opinions and truths in columns. The masses of words and honest statements reaching the ceiling is very intense and slightly disorientating. The capital letters and bold typeface used creates forceful but simple messages.

Within a lot of the works I have looked at on my visit to the Tate there are common themes of repetition, intensity and a systematic style or presentation. This display of Holzer’s collection is not something I connected well with, the room was slightly too overwhelming to focus on all of the words and sentences within it - this may have been one of her intentions, however, I’m not sure I will take away any inspiration from her work.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Cildo Meireles




Meireles presents ‘collections’ in multiple different forms within this piece. The collected things include; vintage analog radios, broadcasted voices, music, and lights. Meireles has also collected information from the bible to influence his work.

“Meireles refers to a ‘tower of incomprehension’ (quoted in Tate Modern 2008, p.168). The installation manifests, quite literally, a Tower of Babel, relating it to the biblical story of a tower tall enough to reach the heavens, which, offending God, caused him to make the builders speak in different tongues. Their inability to communicate with one another caused them to become divided and scatter across the earth and, moreover, became the source of all of mankind’s conflicts. The room in which the tower is installed is bathed in an indigo blue light that, together with the sound, gives the whole structure an eerie effect and adds to the sense of phenomenological and perceptual confusion.”

On entering the installation, the intense atmosphere is very overwhelming. It is easy to understand, without knowing the context of this piece, that it was intended to create confusion but also a sense of importance due to the height and size of the tower of radios. Having then read the context of the installation, Meireles has clearly produced an excellent and very literal technological recreation of the Tower of Babel.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Mark Ruwedel




Ruwedel has collected and recorded historical landscapes within his is photography, presenting his views surrounding the non existent ‘pure nature’ and his belief that all land is a historical archive. My favourite aspect of this exhibition is the fact that this photography collection has been displayed in a very systematic way, with sub collections depending on the photograph’s theme. For example, there was a collection of photographs themed surrounding any location with a name connecting to Hell or the devil. Other sub collections include remote houses.

I really like this way of presenting a collection of work. Through collecting information in the form of photography to record the historical archive that is our land, he has created a systematic and orderly collection of different types of history within the land.

The physically methodical approach to the term ‘collection’ is apparent within both Ruwedel and Gates’ work, this is something I am interested in looking into for my own work with ‘collections’.

Tate Modern Gallery Visit for 'Collections': Carrie Mae Weems



Within this exhibition, Weems has collected a vast number of things. From the basic and raw process of collecting letters to form words to create the poetic commentary, to the photographs found in archives and rephotographed for her work. The red tint was collected and added to the photographs and the glass was collected and etched upon. Moving away from the physical aspects of collection within her work, Weems has also collected historical truths surrounding civil rights and slavery and emotions towards these truths, conveying them in the form of the photographs and etched words.

I really like the layout of this exhibit, particularly how Weems begins and ends the sequence with images of the wife of a Mangbetu chief taken in the 1920s in the Belgian Congo. This is intended to suggest that she is witnessing the historical truths of civil rights and slavery. I felt like this created a strong atmosphere of sadness, especially as the wife’s photographs were tinted blue.

“Weems rephotographed and enlarged the images, overlaying them with a red tint and mounting them behind glass. A series of texts were etched onto the glass to form a powerful, poetic commentary. Text and image show African Americans being forced into servile roles, such as cooks, maidservants or sexual objects. They are presented as evidence to prove dubious scientific theories, and as stereotypical characters in novels.
With the image of a man’s brutally whipped back, Weems does not shy away from the violence underlying slavery. She is also willing to confront the complexity of this history, showing that some Black women were forced to give birth to their masters’ children, while another is accused of being an ‘accomplice’. Above all, by addressing the subjects of the photographs as ‘you’, the text encourages the viewer to recognise each face as an individual rather than as an ethnographic or historical type.”

The way Weems intends to present the people photographed works well in terms of ‘proving dubious scientific theories’. For me, this connection is made through the circular shape of the photographs - similar to the pinhole of a scientific telescope.

I like that through consideration of the pronouns used within her writing, she intends for the viewers to connect and feel more empathy for the individuals photographed. This makes the exhibit a far more personal experience.



Artist: Berlinde De Bruyckere

"De Bruyckere’s sculptures are stern and static, etherised upon tables or propped on brittle wooden crutches. To survive, sculpture of the flesh must either expose the lifelessness of its medium, slip into kitsch, or somehow transcend its form altogether." - Matilda Bathurst for Apollo 

"Working with casts made of wax, animal skins, hair, textiles, metal and wood, Berlinde De Bruyckere renders haunting distortions of organic forms. The vulnerability and fragility of man, the suffering body – both human and animal – and the overwhelming power of nature are some of the core motifs of De Bruyckere’s oeuvre." - Hauser and Wirth

 De Bruyckere suspends her pieces using frames, tables and many other structures. I like this idea as it gives her pieces some sort of importance over everything else within the room. This is something that could work with my instillation as I wanted the rubber model to be lying on a concrete block bed. This would display to the audience how our pleasure holds a high importance, and therefore the act of removing the areas of pleasure become far more personal and intimate. It would invoke a feeling of vulnerability within the audience.

The intimacy of her pieces is further emphasised through the simplicity and minimalistic style of the instillation spaces. I feel that the spaces can imitate those of an operating theatre, there is something very clinical about them. This is something I had already envisioned for my instillation piece and therefore research into de Bruyckere's work has allowed me to consolidate the idea.


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Installation view, ‘Berlinde De Bruyckere. In the Flesh’, Kunsthaus Graz, Austria, 2013


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Instillation view, 'Berlinde De Bruyckere. Yara - The Wound; Arter, Instanbul, Turkey, 2012


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Instillation view, Berlinde de Bruyckere, Speechless Grey Horse


The Speechless Grey Horse piece is interesting because de Bruyckere has not used fleshy, life like tones within this sculpture. I had initially considered using a monotonous colour for the rubber figure in my instillation, however, I feel that it might disconnect the audience from the figure. It leaves more ambiguity, which is not something I want from the piece. The audience should feel connections to the figure at a personal level, allowing them to fully consider what parts of their body feel pleasure.   

Artist: Ellen Gallagher

"The most challenging part of writing about art is that much of what any artwork confronts through image is difficult (if not sometimes impossible) to adequately transfer into words and language. In fact, if it were so easily done, then artists might not feel so compelled to hash out their thoughts and feelings on paper, canvas, or any other of the limitless types of materials available to them. Ellen Gallagher’s visual language is not easily translated into words, but it is obvious that she has built a strong vocabulary to explore her concerns." - Exhibition Review by Ariane Fairlie

Gallagher's work stood out to me within the drawing lecture because I was intrigued by the way she took a readymade photograph and reinvented it through the addition of further drawings with other materials. As a way of working to create a piece, this process is completely new to me and although my instillation will be three dimensional, this process would be an interesting way to explore my ideas rather than simple pencil and pen drawings onto plain paper. This has connections to Quinn's work as they use images and collage to visualise ideas, only differing where Quinn uses these images to plan a three dimensional piece. 


Piece exhibited at her AxME show at the Tate

Artist: Marc Quinn

"Perhaps unexpectedly, considering the pressure and intensity they embody, the figures evolved through stages of disciplined preparation rather than abandoned outpouring. Quinn used photographs and collaged drawings to select poses and combine body sections; not all couplings of head and torso belong to the same casting session. His performance and method was thus different from the mescaline-influenced, self-portrait snapshots (mini-performances staged in a station photo booth) used by Arnulf Rainer as a basis for his ‘face farce’ drawings of the late 1960s and 1970s." - Sean Rainbird, Tate 

Marc Quinn plans and develops his ideas for his sculpture pieces through "photographs and collaged drawings". Being a less traditional form of drawing, this is not something I have explored in my pervious work. I therefore would like to try this within the planning for my instillation. Particularly when needing to visualise the life size rubber sculpture - photographs of a real life human model could help me.